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Posted Aug 5, 2003

Examining SQL Server's I/O Statistics

By Andrew Novick

Reading and writing to the disk is the heart of what any database management system does, SQL Server included. Input/Output (I/O) performance can make or break an application. This article discusses the diagnostic tools that can be used to examine SQL Server's I/O statistics so that you can make fact-based judgments about disk configurations.

There are several ways to request I/O statistics from SQL Server such as the System Statistical functions, sp_monitor, and fn_virtualfilestats. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. I'll show you how they work and their pros and cons.

I rely primarily on fn_virtualfilestats because it gives the most detailed information. The other methods aggregate information at the instance level. The instance level may be the only meaningful alternative when 'you are accounting for the CPU, but when working with file I/O having the detailed breakdown is helpful.

One of the limitations of all of system statistical functions and fn_virtualfilestats is that their reports are always based on the resources consumed since the instance started. This includes both peak usage times and low usage times. If your instance has been running through several cycles of peak to low usage these overall aggregates may be of some interest, but they are usually most interesting during times of peak usage. After we discuss the various methods for statistics gathering, I will show you a stored procedure for gathering I/O statistics during peak time periods.

Ways to get I/O Statistics

Although the statistics are nearly identical, there are several ways to request them from SQL Server 2000. The methods are:

  • The system statistical functions such as @@CPU_BUSY
  • sp_monitor
  • fn_virtualfilestats

The first two methods give you information that is aggregated at the instance level. Let's take a look at them first.

Using the System Statistical Functions

The system statistical functions cover I/O, network and CPU resource utilization. Table 1 lists them.

Table 1 System Statistical Functions




The number of connections or attempted connections.


Timer ticks that the CPU has been working for SQL Server.


Time in timer ticks that SQL Server has been idle.


Timer ticks that SQL Server has spent performing I/O operations.


Number of network packet errors that have occurred.


Number of packets read from the network.


Number of packets written to the network.


Number of millionths of a second in a timer tick.


Number of read/write errors during I/O operations.


Number of disk reads.


Number of disk writes.

For monitoring I/O the most interesting numbers are @@IO_BUSY, @@Total_READ and @@TOTAL_WRITE. Here is a simple query that shows the raw statistics:

-- Take a look at raw I/O Statistics
     , @@TOTAL_WRITE as [Total Writes]
     , CAST(@@IO_BUSY as FLOAT) * @@TIMETICKS / 1000000.0 as [IO Sec]
Total Reads Total Writes IO Sec  
----------- ------------ ----------- 
      85336       322109      25.375

When using the functions @@IO_BUSY, @@CPU_BUSY, and @@IDLE, the function returns clock ticks. To convert ticks to seconds, multiply by @@TIMERTICKS and then divide by one million. Be sure to convert the quantities to floating point, numeric, or bigint to avoid integer overflow during intermediate calculations.

The raw numbers alone aren't very interesting. 'It is more informative to turn the numbers into rates. To do that you need to know how long the instance has been running. This next script uses a user-defined function (UDF), udf_SQL_StartDT, which uses the start time of the Lazy Writer process as a proxy for the start time of the instance. udf_SQL_StartDT is available from my free T-SQL UDF of the Week Newsletter and you can download it at this URL: http://www.novicksoftware.com/UDFofWeek/Vol1/T-SQL-UDF-Volume-1-Number-11-udf_SQL_StartDT.htm .

The start time is turned into a number of seconds and the script performs the division, being careful to CAST to data types that 'will not lose information due to rounding or integer division:

-- Turn the raw statistics into rates
DECLARE @SecFromStart bigint
SET @SecFromStart = DATEDIFF(s, dbo.udf_SQL_StartDT(), getdate())

SELECT CAST(CAST(@@TOTAL_READ as Numeric (18,2))/@SecFromStart 
               as Numeric (18,2))  as [Reads/Sec]
     , CAST(CAST(@@TOTAL_WRITE as Numeric (18,2))/@SecFromStart 
               as Numeric (18,2)) as [Writes/Sec]
     , CAST(@@IO_BUSY * @TIMETICKS/10000.0/@SecFromStart 
               as Numeric (18,2)) as [Percent I/O Time]
Reads/Sec            Writes/Sec           Percent I/O Time     
-------------------- -------------------- -------------------- 
               24.34                92.53                  .42

The read and write rates are often in the tens or hundreds, at least over short time spans. You might ask, "Why do you bother to retain even two digits to the right of the decimal?" Most of the time these extra two digits do not come into play. However, when a system has been idle for a long time, let's say over the weekend after being restarted on Friday night, it's possible to have rates that are less than one. Showing zero for the rates is confusing, so I have tried to be sure that at least a small number shows up.

Showing rates from the time the instance started until the query is run forces you to average over a long time period. SQL Server supplies a stored procedure that shows the values of the system statistical functions since it was last run, this let's you get a quick snapshot of your I/O rates.

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