Database Journal
MS SQL Oracle DB2 Access MySQL PostgreSQL Sybase PHP SQL Etc SQL Scripts & Samples Tips Database Forum Rss Feed

» Database Journal Home
» Database Articles
» Database Tutorials
MS Access
SQL Scripts & Samples
» Database Forum
» Slideshows
Free Newsletters:

News Via RSS Feed

Rss Feed

Database Journal |DBA Support |SQLCourse |SQLCourse2

Featured Database Articles


Posted Feb 11, 2008

Keywords in Oracle

By Steve Callan

Some words in Oracle have special meaning. Maybe not to you, but then you’re not the one having to parse, execute and fetch what you type. To be more precise, the “some words” in the first sentence can be categorized as reserved words and keywords. Within the keywords category, context comes into play because a word isn’t always reserved. For example, the word COMMIT by itself triggers many events, so you’d probably assume COMMIT is one of those words that Oracle has a death grip on. From Oracle’s perspective, no one but me can use that word. As it turns out, COMMIT isn’t held that closely. You can create a table named COMMIT if you so desire because COMMIT is a keyword, a lower classification than that of a reserved word.

A reserved word is locked down, whereas a keyword can be used under certain conditions. Auditing is a valuable tool or feature, and if you wanted to create your own audit table, could you issue a “create table audit (...)” statement?

At least in SQL, no, you may not use “audit” that way. So, how can you tell (or where can you find out) what the special words are, since those are clearly the ones you don’t want to step on? Several guides within the documentation library (typically in an index) contain lists, but the one definitive and one-stop source is the V$RESERVED_WORDS data dictionary view.

At a high level, the name of the view suggests that this is only about reserved words; but when describing the view, the key column of interest is named KEYWORD. That seems confusing given that I just went into detail about the difference between a reserved word and a keyword. It turns out that a second column in the view also matters: RESERVED. The decoder ring for V$RESERVED_WORDS then is this:




Is a reserved word


Is not a reserved word

The Database Reference guide shows exactly that meaning within the description of V$RESERVED_WORDS. The view has several other columns, and what they reveal (or not) is interesting. Take LENGTH for example. The column, as the name suggests, represents the length of the keyword. This raises two questions. First, why does the length matter? Second, why is the length stored as an attribute when it can be easily derived? (Which normal form does that violate?)

In Oracle 10g, there are 27 keywords with length of one, and 29 with length one or null. What are the one or less length keywords (and their reserved status)? I’m considering length one because that will generally include symbols. The keyword of “>>” could be included as well, but then the number of words to consider increases beyond what’s of interest here.

Keyword (reserved)

Keyword (not reserved)



There are two instances of a null or blank value in the non-reserved keyword column. Do they represent a space, null or something else? Hard to tell since neither has an ASCII value. If one represented some form of whitespace, perhaps we’d see an 8, 9, 10, or 32 for a backspace, tab, new line, or space, respectively.

Let’s dig deeper into the view definition and see where the values come from. Using Toad and drilling down into the script for GV_$RESERVED_WORDS (under the SYS schema, VIEWS), we see the following:

SELECT inst_id, keyword, LENGTH,
   DECODE (MOD (TRUNC (TYPE / 2), 2), 0, 'N', 1, 'Y', '?') reserved,
   DECODE (MOD (TRUNC (TYPE / 4), 2), 0, 'N', 1, 'Y', '?') res_type,
   DECODE (MOD (TRUNC (TYPE / 8), 2), 0, 'N', 1, 'Y', '?') res_attr,
   DECODE (MOD (TRUNC (TYPE / 16), 2), 0, 'N', 1, 'Y', '?') res_semi,
   DECODE (MOD (TRUNC (TYPE / 32), 2), 0, 'N', 1, 'Y', '?') duplicate
  FROM x$kwddef;

After formatting some columns and ordering by type (only for length <= 1), the output is:

-------- ---------- ---------- ------- ------- ------
607DE010       1140          1               0      1
607DD48C       1073          1 E             1      1
607DC8B0       1004          1 A             1      1
607D6818        442          1 G             1      1
607D3B3C        181          1 M             1      1
607DC070        956          1 K             1      1
607DA230        780          1 U             1      1
607DE03C       1141          1               0      1
607D37A0        160          1 P             1      1
607DC40C        977          1 T             1      1
607D8E14        663          1 |             1      2
607D8FF8        674          1 :             1      2
607DA364        787          1 -             1      2
607DAA70        828          1 [             1      2
607DADE0        848          1 <             1      2
607DBB74        927          1 ]             1      2
607DBE8C        945          1 !             1      2
607DC82C       1001          1 *             1      2
607D8BAC        649          1 >             1      2
607D7D10        564          1 (             1      2
607D7108        494          1 =             1      2
607D6CBC        469          1 .             1      2
607D6978        450          1 @             1      2
607D4FDC        301          1 ^             1      2
607D45B8        242          1 /             1      2
607D3A34        175          1 ,             1      2
607D2B6C         89          1 )             1      2
607D1F38         18          1 +             1      2
607D2300         40          1 &             1      2

The TYPE column is used as a bucket for grouping words. Overall, the counts of types are:

SQL> select type, count(*)
  2  from x$kwddef
  3  group by type
  4  order by 1;
      TYPE   COUNT(*)
---------- ----------
         1        998
         2         95
         9          2
        16         29
        33         14
        34          4

Using the value of type as an indicator, designating a word as a duplicate means having a type value high enough (above 32) so that the truncation of the division is above one. The 18 duplicate-valued words are:


Are these words really duplicates of other keywords? By count, the answer is no. There is only a difference of two between the count of distinct words (1140) and total words (1142). Is it somehow related to the purpose or function of the word, that is, is CHAR a (rough) duplicate of VARCHAR2? If that were the case, then VARCHAR (or VARCHAR2, pick one) should be a duplicate as well. The meaning of duplicate, then, is somewhat of a mystery.

Let’s look at the problem from Oracle’s (the company) perspective. A technical writer on an OTN forum posting acknowledged a key issue behind creating new keywords. Many, if not all, documented optimizer hints are keywords of one form or another. Suppose you create a procedure named GO_FAST but then in the next release of the RDBMS, a new (and we waited such a long time for this!) hint named GO_FAST is now at your disposal. You can begin to imagine the howls of complaints from customers when established object names have to be renamed in order to not conflict with reserved words in a new release.

Nonetheless, the number of (at least) documented words has increased from 660 in to 1142 in What turns out when minusing the two views is that 10g has 487 keywords not found in 8i, and 8i has two (not counting the blanks) not found in 10g. Many of the newer words are related to optimizer hints.

As a developer, you have to be clever enough to pick a scheme that is unlikely to be used by users. Alternatively, a scheme could be established in the beginning of your RDBMS product that not only prevents users in general from conflicting with it, but also only allows a few select users to even see it in the first place. The X$ tables come to mind for this.

I try to decipher the hidden meaning behind X$ table names. Several sources have defined many of them; one fairly extensive source is Note 175982.1 on MetaLink. Even with that list, the meaning of “kwddef” is not shown. We know that the leading “k” is for kernel, and I’d guess that “wddef” could be something related word definition.

The key is that what is named in SYS is very safe from conflict, but what is exposed (via views, as one way) in SYS risks conflicting with your code or naming scheme. You’ve no doubt run across something like this already. At certain levels within Oracle, there can be one and only one name for an object. Users A and B can each have a table named EMP, but there can be at most one and only one public synonym with the same name that refers to EMP. Consider a user named A:

SQL> create table a.emp as select * from scott.emp;
Table created.
SQL> create public synonym emp for scott.emp;
Synonym created.
SQL> create public synonym emp for a.emp;
create public synonym emp for a.emp
ERROR at line 1:
ORA-00955: name is already used by an existing object

In Closing

Establishing a naming convention, particularly with respect to keywords, reminds me of the observation made by the knight guarding the Holy Grail (in “Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade”) when Donovan (Jones’ nemesis) drank from the wrong goblet and dies a horrible death: “He chose...poorly.” Once keywords are chosen and a product is released to users, adding more keywords (or changing a non-reserved work into a reserved one) becomes problematic. Seemingly harmless choices or decisions early on may limit your choices in the future. Although allowing certain words to be redefined may seem like you’re building in a lot of flexibility, you may just be adding to confusion down the road.

To further complicate matters, some of Oracle’s keywords are also ANSI reserved words. Moreover, if dealing with different systems, a keyword in system A is likely not going to be a keyword in system B. Later on in the movie, after Indiana picked the correct goblet, the knight says, “You have chosen wisely.” That may be hard to do when given numerous words to choose from. Pick what you need now, and if possible, set aside some reserved reserved words just in case. It’s always easier to let them go than to try and claim them in the future.

» See All Articles by Columnist Steve Callan

Oracle Archives

Latest Forum Threads
Oracle Forum
Topic By Replies Updated
Oracle Data Mining: Classification jan.hasller 0 July 5th, 07:19 AM
Find duplicates - Unique IDs Lava 5 July 2nd, 08:30 AM
no matching unique or primary key rcanter 1 April 25th, 12:32 PM
Update values of one table based on condition of values in other table using Trigger Gladiator 3 February 29th, 06:01 PM