About the Series …
This article is a member of the series, MDX Essentials.
The series is designed to provide hands-on application of the fundamentals of
the Multidimensional Expressions (MDX) language, with each tutorial
progressively adding features designed to meet specific real-world needs. For
more information about the series in general, please see my first article, MDX at
First Glance: Introduction to MDX Essentials.
follow along with the steps we undertake within this and prospective articles
of the series, the following components, samples and tools are recommended, and
should be installed according to the respective documentation that accompanies MSSQL
Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Database Engine (for the accompanying
SQL Server Management Studio);
Microsoft SQL Server 2005 Analysis Services;
Business Intelligence Development Studio;
The Analysis Services AdventureWorks DW sample
database (fully deployed to Analysis Services from the AdventureWorks
DW Analysis Services project that accompanies Analysis Services 2005).
Server 2005 and Analysis Services 2005 samples to which I refer
above are available within a Microsoft Windows Installer package that
accompanies the respective applications on the installation CDs, or which can
be downloaded from Microsoft and perhaps elsewhere. The samples are not
installed by default. If you did not install the samples and the AdventureWorks
sample database during SQL Server 2005 Setup, you can install them
after Setup finishes. For more information, see the topic "Running
Setup to Install AdventureWorks Sample Databases and Samples" in the SQL
Server Books Online. Make sure that you read and follow the
installation instructions in the Readme files that accompany the samples
that you want to install. For a list of samples, see the topic "Samples"
in the SQL Server Books Online.
To successfully replicate
the steps of the article, you also need to be a member of the appropriate group
/ role in Analysis Services to access the sample cube for our
exercises. Read permissions are assumed for the samples upon which we
will base our practice exercises, where we will often be using the AdventureWorks
cube, which arrives with Analysis Services 2005 within the AdventureWorks
DW Analysis Services project.
Current Service Pack updates
are assumed for the operating system, MSSQL Server 2005 ("MSSQL
Server"), MSSQL Server 2005 Analysis Services ("Analysis
Services"), MSSQL Server 2005 Reporting Services ("Reporting
Services") and the related Books Online and Samples.
Images are from a Windows 2003 Server environment, but the steps
performed in the articles, together with the views that result, will be quite
similar within any environment that supports MSSQL Server 2005 and its
Within MSSQL Server Analysis Services 2000, we had
somewhat limited options (namely, the MDX Sample Application) for easily
querying our cube data sources with MDX (at least, that is, options that
were available "out of the box" to anyone who had simply installed Analysis
Services and its samples). MSSQL Server 2005 offers us numerous
means for querying our OLAP data sources. In the interest of working within the
current environment, in this and the prospective articles of the series, we
will construct and execute our MDX queries, for the most part, from the SQL
Server Management Studio, but we will occasionally do so from the SQL
Server Business Intelligence Studio, and perhaps from other vantage points,
to further enrich the learning experience within the subject matter involved. For
more in-depth information on any of these various "points of approach"
themselves, see the relevant sections of the Books Online, or
specific articles within my various series’.
Virtually all of the MDX we constructed in earlier articles
can now be used in the SQL Server Management Studio, SQL Server
Business Intelligence Studio, and in various other areas within the Microsoft
integrated Business Intelligence solution, and much of what we construct
going forward can be executed in the MDX Sample Application (assuming
connection to an appropriate Analysis Services 2000 OLAP data source). MDX
as a language continues to evolve and expand: we will focus on many new
features in articles to come, while still continuing to focus upon business
uses of MDX in general. The use of MDX to meet the real-world needs of our
business environments will continue to be my primary focus within the MDX Essentials series.
article, we will continue our examination, begun in Set
Functions: The DRILLDOWNMEMBER() Function, of the MDX surrounding drilling
up and down within our Analysis Services cubes. As we have noted,
drilling up or down occurs along the lines of drilling paths that are
defined within the physical structures of our cubes. "Drilling"
comprises an analytical technique by which an information consumer can maneuver
between summarized ("drilling up") and detailed ("drilling
down") levels of data. While these drilling paths are typically
specified by the cube’s dimensional hierarchies, they can also be based upon
alternative relationships that exist within or between dimensions.
An example might be described as follows, based upon an
engagement within which I have recently been involved: An executive within a
state Department of Education wishes to examine annual Adequate
Yearly Progress (AYP) data within a cube constructed primarily to allow
comparison and analysis of those results at various levels. The executive can
examine national averages, numbers of test takers, and various other
measures, and then perform a drilldown operation within a Geography
dimension that might then present the data by states. He could then
perform subsequent drilldowns to display state regions (or perhaps even congressional
districts), counties / school systems, and more. Depending
upon the design of the cube, the drilldown process could ultimately take
the consumer to the level of the individual schools – perhaps even to
the individual students themselves.
Drilling up is a capability that might be taken for
granted in a drilldown scenario such as the foregoing. From any of the drilled
down levels at which the information consumer finds himself or herself, a
corresponding capability to navigate upward, from more detailed levels
of data to more summarized levels of data, would be considered a
complementary feature. We noted in Set
Functions: The DRILLDOWNMEMBER() Function that the DrillDownMember() function supports the capability of Analysis
Services to meet a common need for basic drilldown. Drilling up is
supported by a function, DrillUpMember(), that is almost identical with
respect to its operation, and which differs primarily in the "direction"
(upward versus downward in the drilling path) of its action.
(Several other "drill" related functions exist in MDX, which we
explore in respective articles.)
Like DrillDownMember(), DrillUpMember()
acts upon members within a specified set based upon members within a second
specified set – the difference is that the "direction" of the drill
is upward in the path versus downward, as is obvious from the
associated keywords. In fact, as we shall see in our practice exercise, and
as we might find as a common approach to providing drilldown and drillup
support within an third party application (including reporting applications
like Reporting Services), DrillUpMember() can be used to deliver
an uncluttered, neat drillup of a set that is produced by the DrillDownMember()
function. I often use the two in conjunction in this manner to provide smooth,
logical movement along drill paths.
manner similar to that of other functions that we have examined in the MDX Essentials series, DrillUpMember() can be useful in a host of
different reporting and analysis applications. DrillUpMember(), along with other "navigational"
functions like it (virtually all of which we examine in other articles of this
series) allows us to exercise a great deal
of presentation sleight of hand, in working with MDX in Analysis Services,
as well as within Reporting Services and various other reporting
applications that can access an Analysis Services cube.
The DrillUpMember() function can be leveraged within
and among the various "layers" of the Microsoft integrated Business
Intelligence solution to support sophisticated presentations and features. We
will introduce the function, commenting upon its operation, and touching upon
examples of effects that we can employ it to deliver. As a part of our
discussion, we will:
Examine the syntax surrounding the function;
Undertake illustrative examples of the uses of the function in
Briefly discuss the results datasets we obtain in the practice