OSQL Utility

This article will explain and define the OSQL utilities
ability to run scripts for administration and batch work when using Microsoft
SQL Server.

Introduction

If you have repetitive tasks to run, multiple SQL servers to
administer, or a very large sequence of commands to execute, then the OSQL utility
may be the tool to use. OSQL is capable of running both scripts and
interactive commands. It is started from the command line and can be executed
manually or by a scheduled task. With over twenty-five switch commands, OSQL
can usually be configured to execute, as your application requires. OSQL does
not have a user interface. So many times, scripts are created in Query
Analyzer, saved and then run by OSQL.

OSQL vs. ISQL and Query Analyzer

There is a great deal of overlap between ISQL and OSQL. Both support input
scripts, output scripts, and most of the same switch arguments. OSQL has no
interface. It will only accept a typed command line, or a saved script. In spite
of this disadvantage, sometimes ISQL and Query Analyzer cannot accomplish the
required task. Working with MSDE is one example. Query Analyzer is not
included with the Microsoft Desktop Engine. When developing an application on
MSDE, or needing to do MSDE administration, the OSQL utility is the only tool
included. Another key difference between ISQL and OSQL is the base library
each tool was built on. ISQL is developed on the DB Library, as opposed to
OSQL being developed on ODBC. The DB Library works at the SQL 6.5 standard. This
difference means ISQL, or any application developed on the DB Library, dose not
support some of the new SQL 2000 features. The entire list of unsupported
features can found in Books on Line under the title "Connecting Early
Version Clients to SQL Server 2000." Some of the main limitations of ISQL
include char and varchars defined greater than 255 bytes will be non accessible,
big ints will be converted to decimals, sql_variants will be converted to nvarchars,
XML results may not be retrieved, and bit fields that are null will be reported
as not null with a value of 0. OSQL and Query Analyzer will support all of the
SQL 2000 features.

OSQL ad hoc query examples

In these beginning tests, we will execute ad hoc queries from the
command line. This first command assumes SQL server is local on your machine
and you have Windows trusted connection, rather than a SQL uid and password.
Open the command prompt and enter:

OSQL -E -Q "SELECT * FROM sysloings"

The contents of the syslogins table should scroll down the command window.
In the above statement, -E tells OSQL to used a trusted connection rather than
a SQL uid. The -Q is the query statement. Because no database was specified,
master was used. To specify a database, change the statement to:

OSQL -E -d pubs -Q "SELECT * FROM authors"

The switches are case sensitive. Moreover, many times a lower case letter has
no relation to an upper case letter. Lower case p is used for print
performance statistics while an upper case P is used to specify a SQL password.

To use SQL security rather than Windows security, remove the -E and change
the statement to:

OSQL -U sa -P secret  -d pubs -Q "SELECT * FROM authors"

OSQL scripts

In these next examples, we will create and save TSQL scripts, and then run them
from OSQL. Query Analyzer is a standard choice for script creation because of
the color coding. Open Query Analyzer and enter:


USE pubs
GO
SELECT * FROM authors
GO

Save this script to your hard drive, and then from the command line, enter
an OSQL statement using the -i switch to specify an input file. The authors
table should be returned.

OSQL -E -i c:\temp\q1.sql

The results of the query can be captured to an output file, rather than
appearing on the screen. Change the command line to include the -o parameter,
for output.

OSQL -E -i c:\temp\q1.sql -o c:\temp\resutls.txt

OSQL should create a text output file. The -u switch can be used to control
the output file being either Unicode or OEM.

System Commands

Operating system commands can also be executed from inside the TSQL script.
The key !! is used to specify this. Change the Query Analyzer script and save
it as:


!! dir c:\temp
GO
USE pubs
GO
SELECT * FROM authors
GO

Now our output file will include the directory listing of the temp folder in
addition to the authors’ results. Also, note this script will not run in Query
Analyzer. The !! directive is not supported. Query Analyzer color coding is
helpful in code layout, but the script testing will need to be done from OSQL.

Error Handling

OSQL supports the RAISERROR command for returning custom error messages. To
use raise error, the database name, id, error severity and state should be
included. Using RAISERROR will cause the script to terminate. Modify the
Query Analyzer script to:


!! dir c:\temp
GO
DECLARE @DBID int
SET @DBID = DB_ID()
DELCARE @DBNAME nvarchar(128)
SET @DBNAME = DB_NAME()
RAISERROR(‘my error’, 18, 127, @DBID, @DBNAME)
USE pubs
GO
SELECT * FROM authors
GO

Running the script will now output our directory listing, from the "!! dir
c:\temp" command, followed by the raise error. The remaining script,
changing to pubs and selecting from authors will not occur. RAISERROR will
terminate the script.

Leaving a script can also be done by calling QUIT or EXIT from inside OSQL.
Neither of these will return an error code, but EXIT can execute a statement
prior to quitting. For example: EXIT(SELECT @@ROWCOUNT).

Conclusion

When administering the Microsoft Desktop Engine, OSQL is a free way to run
statements. For standard SQL Server environments, OSQL can be used to help
automate long or repetitive tasks by reusing scripts. OSQL is also a good
choice to run database setup scripts during application install procedures.

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Don Schlichting

Don Schlichting
Don Schlichting
Don Schlichting is a Microsoft MSCE, MCDBA and an Oracle Certified Associate. Working at Professional Control Corporation as the IT Director,.

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